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扎里亚季耶公园,莫斯科 / Diller Scofidio + Renfro

  • 2019-11-22 09:39
  • 专业分类:园林景观

来源:谷德设计网

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扎里亚季耶公园位于莫斯科的中心位置,毗邻圣巴西尔大教堂、红场和克里姆林宫,历史悠久的场地展现着俄罗斯的集体记忆以及对未来发展的希冀。这块35英亩的土地在历史上经历了多次重构:19世纪时成为犹太人的飞地;后来被用作斯大林风格摩天楼的基座;最后又成为了欧洲最大的酒店(俄罗斯饭店),直至2007年被拆除。在那之后的五年,这块位于中心地带的场地一直处于封闭状态,并打算扩展为一个新的商业中心(由诺曼·福斯特事务所担任设计)。

Centrally located steps from St. Basil’s Cathedral, Red Square and the Kremlin, Zaryadye Park sits on a historically charged site saturated by Russia’s collective past and evolving aspirations. As a historic palimpsest, the 35-acre site has been populated by a Jewish enclave in the 1800’s, the foundations of a cancelled Stalinist skyscraper, and the Hotel Rossiya— the largest hotel in Europe until its demolition in 2007.  For five years, this central piece of Moscow real estate—encompassing a quarter of downtown Moscow— remained fenced as plans to extend its use as a commercial center by Norman Foster were underway.

▼远眺克里姆林宫、红场和圣巴塞尔教堂,Aerial View of the Kremlin, Red Square, and St. Basil’s Cathedral

▼远眺公园旁的教堂,Aerial View of Historic Churches

2012年,莫斯科市政府和首席建筑师Sergey Kuznetsov共同组织了一次设计竞赛,旨在将这一历史悠久的私有商业区改造为供大众使用的公园。最终,由Diller Scofidio + Renfro (DS+R)事务所率领、Hargreaves Associates和Citymakers共同合作的跨国设计团队提交的竞赛方案,从来自27个国家的90份提案中脱颖而出。

In 2012, the City of Moscow and Chief Architect Sergey Kuznetsov organized a design competition to transform this historically privatized, commercial territory into a public park. An international design consortium led by Diller Scofidio + Renfro (DS+R) with Hargreaves Associates and Citymakers was selected out of ninety submissions representing 27 different countries.

▼平面图,plan

作为莫斯科五十年来首次兴建的大型公园,扎里亚季耶被构思为一个高度综合的公共空间,它同时扮演着公园、城市广场、社交空间、文化设施以及休闲场所的角色。为了实现这种同步性,设计团队将自然景观叠加在既有的环境之上,在自然与人工、城市与乡村、室内和室外之间创造了一系列元素上的对比。自然景观与硬景观的交织创造出一种“粗野的都市主义”,以一种全新的模式介入到莫斯科历史悠久的、正式而且对称的公园空间。

▼扎里亚季耶公园被构思为一个高度综合的公共空间,Zaryadye Provides a Public Space that Resists Easy Categorization

▼远眺自然中心、大草坪和露天剧场,Aerial View of Ice Cave, Nature Center, Great Lawn and Glass Canopy

As the first large scale park to be built in Moscow in the last fifty years, Zaryadye provides a public space that resists easy categorization. It is at once park, urban plaza, social space, cultural amenity, and recreational armature. To achieve this simultaneity, natural landscapes are overlaid on top of constructed environments, creating a series of elemental face-offs between the natural and the artificial, urban and rural, interior and exterior. The intertwining of landscape and hardscape creates a ‘Wild Urbanism,” introducing a new offering to compliment Moscow’s historically formal, symmetrical park spaces.

▼媒体中心,Media Center

▼自然中心植物园,Nature Center: Florarium

▼自然中心和“冰穴”,Nature Center & Ice Cave

设计将Kitay-Gorod历史街区的特色元素和红场的鹅卵石铺路与克里姆林宫葱郁的花园结合在一起,打造出一个兼具城市特征和绿色气息的新公园。定制的石材铺路系统使自然景观和硬景观交织在一起,在带来融合感的同时模糊了景观的边界,从而鼓励来访者们自由漫步。扎里亚季耶公园的开放进一步完善了莫斯科市中心的名胜古迹和城市街区集群,弥补了公共空间方面的空缺。

Characteristic elements of the historic district of Kitay-Gorod and the cobblestone paving of Red Square are combined with the lush gardens of the Kremlin to create a new park that is both urban and green. A custom stone paving system knits hardscape and landscape together— generating a blend rather than a border—encouraging visitors to meander freely. Zaryadye Park is the missing link that completes the collection of world-famous monuments and urban districts forming central Moscow.

▼桦树林景观带,Birch Forest Landscape Zone

穿行于公园的不同角落,游客们会邂逅一系列各具特色的景观平台,这些平台重新展现了俄罗斯多样的区域性景观,包括苔原、草原、森林和湿地。它们被沿着从东北向西南方下降的台地布置,其交叠的形式最终创造出14000平方米的围合空间,使自然与人工构筑物融为一体。

Traversing between each corner of the park, visitors encounter terraces that recreate and celebrate four diverse, regional landscapes found in Russia: tundra, steppe, forest and wetland. These zones are organized in terraces that descend from northeast to southwest, with each layering over the next to create a total of 14,000 square meters of enclosed, programmed spaces integrated into the landscape: nature and architecture act as one.

▼草原景观带,Meadow Landscape Zone:

▼苔原景观带,Tundra / Northern Landscape Zone

▼草原景观带,Steppe Landscape Zone

▼定制的石材铺路系统使自然景观和硬景观交织在一起,a custom stone paving system knits hardscape and landscape together

游客们可以站在长达70米的悬臂结构上俯瞰莫斯科河,同时将媒体中心、自然中心、餐厅、市场、两个露天剧场和爱乐音乐厅收入眼底。

Visitors can enjoy a river overlook cantilevering 70 meters over Moscow River, media center, nature center, restaurant, market, two amphitheaters and a philharmonic concert hall.

▼伸向莫斯科河、长达70米的悬臂结构,the river overlook cantilevering 70 meters over Moscow River

▼观景平台和沿河路堤,Moscow River Overlook & Embankment

▼带有全景视野的漫步道,Promenade with Panoramic Views

▼悬臂夜景,night view

剖面上的交错还有利于改善微气候,以延长持续时间较短的温暖季节。被动式的气候控制策略包括调节景观山丘的形态以及露天剧场的玻璃外壳,以形成温暖空气的自然流动。最终的结果是,该策略有效降低了风量,延长了植物的绿期,同时,随着游客走上斜坡,环境温度也会逐渐提升。

The sectional overlay also facilitates augmented microclimates that seek to extend the typically short park season. These passive climate-control strategies included calibrating the typography of one of the park’s landscaped hills and the amphitheater’s glass crust to leverage the natural buoyancy of warm air. As a result, wind is minimized, plants stay greener longer, and the temperature rises gradually as visitors ascend the slope.

▼大草坪和露天剧场,the landscaped hills and the amphitheater

▼以玻璃外壳遮蔽的露台剧场,Glass Canopy and Artificial Hill

▼座位区视野,Open Air Seating with Framed Views

▼夜景,night view

▼可容纳1600人的座位,1,600 Seating Capacity

在较冷的月份,温暖的空气能够被保留下来。到了夏季,电动玻璃面板可以打开,将热量传递到屋顶。这些自然区域与附近的表演场馆以及围合的文化场馆遥相呼应,为游客提供了集会、休憩和赏景的场所。一系列观景点还提供了重新发现城市美景的框架。每个游客都可以自由地选择属于自己的游览体验。

Warmer air is retained during the colder months, while in the summer, motorized glass panels open to expel heat through the roof. These natural zones provide places of gathering, repose and observation, in concert with performance spaces and enclosed cultural pavilions. In addition to these programmed destinations, a series of vista points provide a frame for the cityscape to rediscover it anew. Each visitor’s experience is tailor made for them, by them.

▼夏季,电动玻璃面板可以打开以将热量传递到屋顶,in the summer, motorized glass panels open to expel heat through the roof

▼冬季的扎里亚季耶公园,Zaryadye Park in winter

▼整体鸟瞰,aerial view

▼场地剖面图,site sections

Photographers:
Iwan Baan
Matthew Monteith
Philippe Ruault

ZARYADYE PARK
MOSCOW, RUSSIA (2017)
CLIENT, COMPETITION ORGANIZER: City of Moscow, Chief Architect Sergey Kuznetsov
STATUS: Opened Fall 2017; Competition Selection 2013
SITE: 14 hectares/ 35 acres

DESIGN CONSORTIUM
Consortium Lead, Concept Masterplan Designer: Diller Scofidio + Renfro (USA)
Team: Charles Renfro (Partner), David Chacon (Project Director),
Brian Tabolt (Lead Designer),Ayat Fadaifard, Seongbeom Mo,
Dino Kiratzidis, Gabriel Bollag, James Murray, Zoe Small, Trevor
Lamphier, Mike Robitz
Lindsay Harkema, Jose Tijerina, Kelsey Olafson
Landscape and Masterplan Designer: Hargreaves Associates
(USA)
Local Partner, Urban Designer: Citymakers (Russia)
Climate Engineering and Energy Consultant: Transsolar
(Germany)
Engineering Consultant: Buro Happold (United Kingdom)
Park Management: Central Park Conservancy (USA)
Cost Consultant: Directional Logic (USA)
Lighting: ARUP (USA)
Native Planting Expert: Arteza (Russia)
Architect and Engineer: MAHPI (Russia)
Contractor: Mosinzhproekt (Russia)
PROGRAM
Competition Brief Requirement:
9,000 m2 enclosed Program*
Final Brief Requirement:
14,000 m2 enclosed Program*
*excludes Philharmonic Hall and Parking
Pavilions/ Enclosed Program Breakdown:
• 7,000 m2 Media Center
• 3,000 m2 Nature Center and Ice Cave
• 2,000 m2 Restaurant
• 2,000 m2 Market
River Overlook (70 meter length)
Large Amphitheater (1,600 person seating capacity)
Small Amphitheater (400 person seating capacity)
30,000 m2 Philharmonic Concert Hall (approx. 2,000 seating capacity, recording studios, café) designed by TPO Reserve and
MIIP
Embankment
Underground Park (450 car capacity)


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